The fourth industrial revolution, 4IR or Industry 4.0[1], is shaping the rapid evolution of technology, industries and societal models and processes in the 21st century due to increasing connectivity and intelligent automation. Popularized by the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, Klaus Schwab, it asserts that the observed changes are more than just improvements in efficiency, but express a significant change in industrial capitalism. [2] The Third Industrial Revolution, also known as the Digital Revolution, took place at the end of the 20th century, after the end of both world wars, due to a slowdown in industrialization and technological progress compared to previous periods. The production of the Z1 computer, which used floating-point binary numbers and Boolean logic, a decade later, was the beginning of more advanced numerical developments. The next important development in communication technology was the supercomputer with intensive use of computer and communication technologies in the production process; Machines began to eliminate the need for human power. [17] Meanwhile, fundamental changes are occurring in the operation of the global production and supply network through the continuous automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices using modern smart technologies, large-scale machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and the Internet of Things (IoT). This integration increases automation, improves communication and self-monitoring, and the use of intelligent machines that can analyze and diagnose problems without human intervention. [4] The Third Industrial Revolution, sometimes referred to as the Digital Revolution, has involved the development of computers and information technology since the mid-20th century. The fourth industrial revolution is emerging from the third, but is seen as a new era rather than a continuation due to the explosiveness of its development and the disruptability of its technologies. According to Professor Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum and author of The Fourth Industrial Revolution, the new era is distinguished by the speed of technological breakthroughs, the penetration of scale and the enormous impact of new systems.

The fourth industrial revolution will eventually change not only what we do, but also who we are. This will affect our identity and all the issues associated with it: our sense of privacy, our notions of ownership, our consumption habits, the time we spend on work and leisure, and how we develop our careers, cultivate our skills, meet people and cultivate relationships. This is already changing our health and leading to a «quantified» self, and sooner than we think, it could lead to a human increase. The list is endless because it is only related to our imagination. 4IR represents a technological paradigm shift with uncertain consequences in many areas of life. The opportunities to increase productivity, sustainability, social inclusion and prosperity are compelling, but depend on a favourable industrial ecosystem and a favourable political regime. Dissatisfaction can also be fuelled by the proliferation of digital technologies and the dynamics of information exchange characterized by social media. More than 30% of the world`s population now uses social media platforms to connect, learn and share information. In an ideal world, these interactions would offer an opportunity for intercultural understanding and cohesion. However, they can also create and propagate unrealistic expectations about what constitutes the success of an individual or group, and provide opportunities for extreme ideas and ideologies to spread. Critics of the concept reject Industry 4.0 as a marketing strategy.

They suggest that although revolutionary changes are noticeable in different sectors, there are no systemic changes so far. In addition, the pace of industry 4.0 recognition and political transition varies from country to country; the definition of Industry 4.0 is not harmonised. Part of this phase of industrial change is the combination of technologies such as artificial intelligence, gene editing, and advanced robotics that blur the boundaries between the physical, digital, and biological worlds. [2] [3] There are three reasons why today`s transformations represent not only an extension of the third industrial revolution, but rather the arrival of a different fourth revolution: speed, scope and impact on systems. The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent. Compared to previous industrial revolutions, the Fourth is growing exponentially rather than linearly. In addition, it interferes with almost all industries in all countries. And the breadth and depth of these changes herald the transformation of entire systems of production, management and governance. Industry 4.0 is driving a new revolution – the much-noticed Fourth Industrial Revolution – a fusion of cutting-edge production techniques and intelligent systems that can be integrated into organizations and people. Join us on a journey through the technologies that drive this process and its accelerated progress. To analyze how we achieved the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it`s a good idea to look back at the last three industrial revolutions, how they changed our lives and the world when they happened.

Let`s take a quick look: Like the revolutions that preceded it, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has the potential to raise global income levels and improve the quality of life for people around the world. So far, those who have benefited the most have been consumers who have been able to afford and access the digital world; Technology has enabled new products and services that increase the efficiency and enjoyment of our personal lives. Ordering a taxi, booking a flight, buying a product, making a payment, listening to music, watching a movie or playing a game – all this can now be done remotely. All revolutions have advantages and disadvantages, challenges and opportunities, uncertainties and certainties. In the case of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the benefits are obvious: increased productivity, efficiency and quality of processes, greater safety for workers by reducing jobs in hazardous environments, better decision-making with data-driven tools, improved competitiveness through the development of tailor-made products that meet the needs of consumers, etc. Nevertheless, the globalized nature of value chains means that sooner or later, most parts of the world will be directly or indirectly affected by 4IR. Some observers fear that it heralds widespread unemployment as people are being replaced by technology. The more optimistic forecaster sees an opportunity for developing countries to skip some intermediate stages of industrialization. Either way, a lot of (virtual) ink has been poured out to advise industries and economies on how best to prepare. However, the ability to benefit from 4IR depends on the availability (and affordability) of ADP technologies, as well as the right level and combination of industrial skills and capabilities. If developing countries are not able to meet both of these requirements at the same time, leaders who accelerate risk leaving them behind.

Another example is Making Indonesia 4.0, which focuses on improving industrial performance. [48] We all studied the first industrial revolution in school. The steam engine patented by James Watt in 1769 played an important role in this regard. The one that meant the transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. In short, the first industrial revolution was the most revolutionary economic, technological and social transformation the world has ever known. More than two centuries later, the Fourth Industrial Revolution caused an even greater stir. .